David Green

Professor
Institute for Fiscal Studies, UCL, International Fellow

I am a professor in the Vancouver School of Economics at UBC and an International Fellow at the Institute for Fiscal Studies in London.

My research interests centre around determinants of the wage and employment structure. In my recent work, this has entailed bridging between macro labour (worrying about general equilibrium effects) and micro labour identification issues.

Please click on paper titles for abstracts and full text downloads.

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WORKING PAPERS

We use Census and Labour Force Survey (LFS) data for the period from 1971 to 2012 to investigate whether the Canadian wage and employment structures have polarized, that is, whether wages and employment have grown more in high and low than in middle paying occupations. We find that there has been faster growth in employment in both high and low paying occupations than those in the middle since 1981. However, up to 2005, the wage pattern reflects a simple increase in inequality with greater growth in high paid than middle paid occupations and greater growth in middle than low paid occupations. Since 2005, there has been some polarization but this is present only in some parts of the country and seems to be related more to the resource boom than technological change. We present results for the US to provide a benchmark. The Canadian patterns fit with those in the US and other countries apart from the 1990s when the US undergoes wage polarization not seen elsewhere. We argue that the Canadian data do not fit with the standard technological change model of polarization developed for the U.S..

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We use newly available micro data samples from the 1911, 1921, 1931 and 1941 Canadian Censuses to investigate movements in earnings inequality and the impact of immigration on the Canadian earnings distribution in the first half of the 20th Century.  We show that earnings inequality changed little between 1911 and 1921, increased sharply between 1921 and 1931 then declined somewhat between 1931 and 1941.  On net, inequality increased substantially in the inter-war years.  Canada experienced large immigration inflows in the 1920s.  We investigate whether this was a main driving force behind the increased inequality using decomposition techniques and reduced form and structural estimation.  We find that immigration had a substantial impact within an occupation viewed in isolation but that once we take account of complementarities across occupations and the fact that immigrants moved into similar occupations to the native born with time in Canada, the  net effect of immigration on the level and dispersion of the earnings distribution is small.  We conclude that immigration was unlikely to be a main driving force behind the increased inequality in Canada in the 1920s.

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What explains the current low rate of employment in the US? While there has been substantial debate over this question in recent years, we believe that considerable added insight can be derived by focusing on changes in the labor market at the turn of the century. In particular, we argue that in about the year 2000, the demand for skill (or, more specifically, for cognitive tasks often associated with high educational skill) underwent a reversal. Many researchers have documented a strong, ongoing increase in the demand for skills in the decades leading up to 2000. In this paper, we document a decline in that demand in the years since 2000, even as the supply of high education workers continues to grow. We go on to show that, in response to this demand reversal, high-skilled workers have moved down the occupational ladder and have begun to perform jobs traditionally performed by lower-skilled workers. This de-skilling process, in turn, results in high-skilled workers pushing low-skilled workers even further down the occupational ladder and, to some degree, out of the labor force all together. In order to understand these patterns, we offer a simple extension to the standard skill biased technical change model that views cognitive tasks as a stock rather than a flow. We show how such a model can explain the trends in the data that we present, and offers a novel interpretation of the current employment situation in the US.

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In this paper, we present a spatial equilibrium model where search frictions hinder the immediate reallocation of workers both within and across local labour markets. Because of the frictions, firms and workers find themselves in bilateral monopoly positions when determining wages. Although workers are not at each instant perfectly mobile across cities, in the baseline model we assume that workers flows are sufficient to equate expected utility across markets. We use the model to explore the joint determination of wages, unemployment, house prices and city size (or migration). A key role of the model is to clarify conditions under which this type of spatial equilibrium setup can be estimated. We then use U.S. data over the period 1970-2007 to explore the fit of model and it quantitative properties of the model. Our main goal is to highlight forces that influence spatial equilibria at 10 year intervals.

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We use search and bargaining theory to develop an empirically tractable specification of the job creation curve and to derive an instrumental variable strategy to estimate and test its validity. We estimate the job creation curve using city level observations for 1970-2007. We find that U.S. city-industry level labour market outcomes conform well to restrictions implied by search and bargaining theory. Using 10-year differences, we estimate the elasticity of the job creation curve with respect to wages to be -0.3. We interpret this relatively low elasticity as reflecting a low propensity for individuals to become entrepreneurs when labour costs decline.

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We use a large, rich Canadian micro-level dataset to examine the channels through which family socio-economic status and unobservable characteristics affect children’s decisions to drop out of high school. Our data suggest that teenage boys with two parents who are themselves high school dropouts have a 16% chance of dropping out, compared to a dropout rate of less than 1% for boys whose parents both have a university degree. We develop and estimate an extended version of the factor model set out in Carneiro et al. (2003) in which we identify the impact of cognitive and non-cognitive ability, as well as the value that parents place on education. Our results support three main conclusions. First, cognitive ability at age 15 has a substantial impact on dropping out. The highest ability individuals are predicted never to drop out regardless of parental education or parental valuation of education. In contrast, the lowest ability teenagers have a probability of dropping out of approximately .36 if their parents have a low valuation of education. Second, parental valuation of education has a substantial impact on medium and low ability teenagers. A low ability teenager has a probability of dropping out of approximately .03 if his parents place a high value on education but .36 if their educational valuation is low. These effects are estimated while conditioning on ability (as of age 15) and they reflect parental influences during the upper teenage years, above and beyond any impact they might have had in the early development leading up to age 15. Third, parental education has no direct effect on dropping out once we control for ability and parental valuation of education. Overall, our results confirm the importance of whatever determines ability by age 15 (such as early childhood interventions) but they also point to an important role for parental valuation of education during the teenage years. Finally, our model presents a small methodological contribution by extending the standard unobserved-factor estimator to allow for a non-linear relationship between the factors and some co-variate of interest. We show that allowing for such non-linearities has a very substantial impact on estimates.

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We investigate the sources of declines in entry earnings for Canadian immigrants in the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s. We find that these declines are not unique to immigrants: native born new entrants also faced declines in entry earnings. Differencing immigrant entry earnings relative to those of native born workers entering the labour market at the same time provides a means of removing the effects of changes in the Canadian economy that are not specific to immigrants. After doing this, we find that substantial declines in returns to foreign experience play an important role in declines in entry earnings across immigrant cohorts. The declining return to foreign experience is strongly related to shifts in the source country composition of immigration. In the end, we can account for 74% of the decline in entry earnings between the 1980-82 immigrant cohort and the 2000-02 cohort with a combination of general new entrant effects (39%), shifts in the source country composition (16%), and flattening of the foreign experience profile (24%). The substantial increase in the 1990s in the points allocated to immigrant applicants with university education actually worked in the opposite direction meaning that immigrant entry earnings would have been even lower in the absence of the resulting shift in educational composition (equivalent to 5% of the decline in entry earnings).

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We use tabulations on earnings, employment and weeks worked by detailed occupation from the 1911 – 1941 Canadian Censuses to generate a complete depiction of movements in Canada’s wage structure in this period. Previous research has had to rely on examinations of a restricted set of skilled/unskilled wage differentials. We find that the wage structure became much more equal in the WWI decade but this was more than offset by a substantial widening in the 1920s. The net effect is a substantial widening of the wage structure from the pre-WWI period to 1940. We show that this is not due to age, occupation or region composition shifts. This pattern is in strong contrast to the United States where there was substantial wage compression over the same period. Goldin and Katz(2001) argue this arises from the expansion of high school education in the US. We show that Canada underwent a similar educational transformation in this period and argue that the results may reflect the impacts of very different immigration policies in the two countries in the inter-war period.

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We examine the political economy of minimum wages, arguing that it can best be understood in terms of voters’ notions of fairness. We arrive at this conclusion through an empirical investigation of the implications of three models of minimum wage setting, considered in the context of policy setting by sub-units in a federation: a competing interests group model; a constrained altruism model; and a fairness based model. In the latter model, voters are interested in banning what they view to be unfair transactions, with the notion of fairness based on comparisons to the “going” unskilled wage. We use data on minimum wages set in the ten Canadian provinces from 1969 to 2005 to carry out the investigation. A key implication of the models that is borne out in the data is that minimum wages should be set as a positive function of the location of the unskilled wage distribution. Together, the results indicate that minimum wages are set according to a “fairness” standard and that this may exacerbate movements in inequality.

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PUBLISHED PAPERS

Does switching the composition of jobs in an economy between low-paying industries and high-paying industries have important effects on wages in other sectors? The answer to this question is central to a proper assessment of many trade and industrial policies. In this paper, we build on a search and bargaining model of the labour market to clarify a key general equilibrium channel through which changes in industrial composition could have substantial effects on wages in all sectors. In particular, we show that the equilibrium determination of wages in that model takes the form of a classical social interaction problem (or reflection problem), and we show how the implied linkages can be empirically explored. In our empirical implementation, we use U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over the years 1970 to 2007 to estimate the equilibrium effects of changes in industrial composition on within-sector wages. Our findings are that sectoral-level wages act as strategic complements in a manner consistent with a social interaction model, and that the general equilibrium effects associated with changes in the fraction of jobs in high paying sectors are very substantial and persistent. Our point estimates indicate that the total effect on average wages of a change in industrial composition favouring high paying sectors is about 3.5 times that obtained from a commonly used decomposition approach which neglects general equilibrium effects. We interpret our results as highlighting the relevance of a search and bargaining model for understanding the general equilibrium determination of wages, and we argue that our results provide considerable support for the view that changes in industrial composition are important for understanding labour market outcomes.

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We investigate differences in labour market transition rates in high versus low minimum wage regimes using Canadian data spanning 1979 to 2008. The data include consistent questions on job tenure and reason for job separation for the whole period. Over the same time frame, there were over 140 minimum wage changes in Canada. We find that higher minimum wages are associated with lower hiring rates but also with lower job separation rates. Importantly, the reduced separation rates are due mainly to reductions in layoffs, occur in the first 6 months of a job, and are present for unskilled workers of all ages. Our estimates imply that a 10% increase in the minimum wage generates a 3.9% reduction in the layoff rate. We also find that the transition rate from out-of-the-labour-force (N) to unemployment (U) is lower when the minimum wage is higher and that the U to N rate is higher, implying that labour supply is reduced when the minimum wage is higher. We present a search and matching model that fits with these patterns and test its implications. Overall, our results imply that jobs in higher minimum wage regimes are more stable but harder to get. For older workers, these effects almost exactly offset each other, resulting in little impact on the employment rate. One might conclude from the small impact of minimum wages on the employment rate that they do not affect the labour market for older workers but our results indicate this is not true.

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We identify the effect of individual high school principals on graudation rates and English exam scores using an administrative data set of grade 12 students in BC Canada. Many principals were rotated across schools by districts, permitting isolation of the effect of principals from the effect of schools. We estimate the variance of the idiosyncratic effect of principals on student outcomes using semi-parametric technique assuming the effect is time invariant. We also allow for the possibility that principals take time to realize their full effect at a school.

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Considering immigrant earnings in the context of post-arrival human capital investment implies: cohort quality should be defined in terms of the present value of the whole earnings profile; and, an appropriate definition of “macro ” effects is obtained using the earnings profile of the native born cohort entering the labour market at the same time as an immigrant cohort. We illustrate this using Canadian immigrant earnings, where there were large cross-cohort earnings declines in the 1980s and 1990s. We find that changes affecting all new entrants play an important role in understanding immigrant earnings. In contrast, earlier approaches imply that “macro” events explain little of immigrant earnings patterns.

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Theoretical and empirical work seems to support the idea that tight labour markets driven by resource booms induce young individuals to leave school for employment as the opportunity cost of schooling increases. Resource booms may have an adverse long term effect on the productivity of the labor force if workers under-invest in human capital rather than merely altering the timing of schooling. We explore the validity of this thesis using the Albertan 1973-1981 oil-boom, which created a period of rapid growth both in wages and employment in Alberta relative to the rest of Canada, and analyze the effect of this oil-boom on the long-term human capital investments and productivity for birth cohorts that were of normal schooling ages before, during and after the oil boom. Our findings suggest that resource booms may change the timing of schooling but do not seem to affect greatly the total accumulation of human capital.

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We study the relationship between age and literacy skills in Canada,Norway and the U.S.—countries that represent a wide range of literacy outcomes — using data from the 1994 and 2003 International Adult Literacy Surveys. In cross-sectional data there is a weak negative partial relationship between literacy skills and age. However, this relationship could reflect some combination of age and cohort effects. In order to identify age effects, we use the 1994 and 2003 surveys to create synthetic cohorts. Our analysis shows that the modest negative slope of the literacy-age profile in cross-sectional data arises from offsetting ageing and cohort effects. Individuals from a given birth cohort lose literacy skills after they leave school at a rate greater than indicated by cross-sectional estimates. At the same time, more recent birth cohorts have lower levels of literacy. All three countries show similar patterns of skill loss with age, as well as declining literacy across successive cohorts.

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In June, the federal government published plans to replace the mandatory ‘long form’ census with a new National Housing Survey for the 2011 census cycle. The new NHS is to be circulated to more households, but will be voluntary rather than mandatory. The announcement generated a response unique both for its breadth across civil society and its near uniformity. The breadth of response reflects the plethora of uses for census data, stretching into so many important decisions made by businesses, municipal and provincial governments, and non-profits. The near uniformity of response reflects the certainty of science on the statistical nature of voluntary versus mandatory sampling techniques. In this piece, we begin by showing the statistical importance of the distinction between voluntary and mandatory sampling techniques. We then proceed to explain how the ubiquity of the census in Canada’s national statistics is even greater than many appreciate due to the role of the census as the ultimate benchmark for other surveys. Finally, we close with thoughts on the role of government in the realm of statistics.

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We examine the wage patterns of Canadian less skilled male workers over the last quarter century by organizing workers into job entry cohorts. We find entry wages for successive cohorts declined until 1997, and then began to recover. Wage profiles steepened for cohorts entering after 1997, but not for cohorts entering in the 1980s – a period when start wages were relatively high. We argue that these patterns are consistent with a model of implicit contracts with recontracting in which a worker’s current wage is determined by the best labour market conditions experienced during the current job spell.

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In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the substantial changes in tax and transfer programs and the movements in after-tax income inequality over the 1980s and 1990s. We show that in the 1980s, tax and transfer programs became more redistributive, offsetting substantial increases in market income inequality. In the 1990s, the tax and transfer system stopped undoing the increases in market income inequality, leading aftertax income inequality to rise. Even so, tax and transfer programs were more redistributive in 2000 than in the 1980s. Much of the changes occurred at the provincial level, with social assistance payments first increasing (in the late 1980s) then decreasing (in the late 1990s) and with surtaxes on high income earners being first imposed and then subsequently removed.

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Human capital policy has come to be seen as something of panacea: acting both as a necessary input for modern growth and an effective tool for redistribution. Canada has moved strongly in the direction of linking redistribution and human capital investment. In this paper, I investigate the empirical evidence and theoretical arguments behind the claim that increasing skills investment opportunities and tying transfers to human capital investments while decreasing traditional income support will ultimately lead to a more equal, more just society. Whether this is true, of course, will depend on the notion of justice one adopts. One of my goals in this paper is to examine the implications of the kind of policy path Canada is following under different notions of fairness. I conclude that both empirical evidence and fairness considerations indicate that human capital policy does not make good redistributive policy.

link to paper not available.

We examine the impact of high school graduation on the probability individuals from welfare backgrounds use welfare themselves. Our data consists of administrative educational records for grade 12 students in a Canadian province linked with their own and their parents’ welfare records. We address potential endogeneity problems by: 1) controlling for ability using past test scores; 2) using an instrument for graduation based on school principal fixed effects; and 3) using a Heckman- Singer type unobserved heterogeneity estimator. Graduation would reduce welfare receipt of drop- outs by ½ to 3/4. Effects are larger for individuals from troubled family backgrounds and low income neighbourhoods.

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We present new evidence on levels and trends in after-tax income inequality in Canada between 1980 and 2000. We argue that existing data sources may miss changes in the tails of the income distribution, and that much of the changes in the income distribution have been in the tails. Our data are constructed from Census files, which are augmented with predicted taxes based on information available from administrative tax data. After validating our approach in predicting taxes on the Census files, we document differences in the levels and trends in after-tax inequality between the newly constructed data source and the more commonly used survey data. We find that after-tax inequality levels are substantially higher based on the new data, primarily because income levels are lower at the bottom than in survey data. The new data shows larger long-term increases in after-tax income inequality and far more variability over the economic cycle. This raises interesting questions about the role of the tax and transfer system in mitigating both trends and fluctuations in market income inequality.

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This paper uses the 1993 and 1997 Adult Education and Training Survey (AETS) to look at the effect of unions on the incidence and sources of payment for training in Canada. Simple tabulations indicate that union workers are more likely to engage in training activities than non-union workers. The higher incidence of training among union workers is driven by the fact that they are more likely to take training courses offered by their employers than non-union workers. This suggests that union workers are more likely to participate into training activities that enhance their firm-specific human capital. This union effect disappears, however, once we control for a variety of factors such as age, education, and in particular firm size and seniority. Everything else being equal, unions have little effect on the provision of training in Canada. Finally, we present some limited evidence that unions help increase the participation of firms into the financing of training activities.

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We use a special Canadian dataset containing both literacy test scores and standard labour market variables to examine the impact of literacy on immigrant earnings. Having a literacy measure allows us to examine issues related to discrimination and the sources of lower returns to foreign acquired education and experience among immigrants. We find that the native-born literacy distribution (assessed in English or French) dominates that for immigrants. However, immigrants and the native born appear to obtain the same return to their literacy skills. We argue that this does not support a discrimination explanation for immigrant-native born earnings differentials. Immigrant shortfalls in literacy can account for about one-half of the earnings gap between university educated immigrants and similarly educated native-born workers. However, low returns to foreign acquired experience have a larger impact on the differential and those low returns are not related to literacy differences. Thus, low literacy among immigrants is an important input to understanding immigrant-native born earnings differentials but is not the dominant explanation.

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Over the last few decades, countries have experienced quite different patterns of productivity growth. In this paper, we emphasize the role of country level demo- graphics in explaining these differences. In particular, looking over the period 1960–2002, we show that cross-country data support the notion that, starting in the late 1970s, countries went through a period of technological transition that lasted at least until the mid-1990s for the fastest adjusting countries and is still proceeding for the slower adjusting countries. The main claim of the paper is that the country-level rate of labour growth was a key factor driving the speed of adjustment to the new technological paradigm, implying that much of the cross-country difference in economic performance over recent decades can be explained by demographic differences across countries as opposed to the many other factors emphasized in the literature.

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Why have some countries done so much better than others over the recent past? In order to shed new light on this issue, this paper provides a decomposition of the change in the distribution of output–per–worker across countries over the period 1960–98. The main finding of the paper is that most of the change in shape of the world distribution of income between 1960–1998 can be accounted for by a very substantial and previously unrecognized change in the parameters driving the growth process. In particular, we show that the role of capital deepening forces – that is the role of investment rates and population growth in affecting output – increased dramatically over the period 1978-98 versus 1960-78, and that this increase can account for almost all the observed changes in the world distribution. In contrast, we do not find any significant effects coming through non–linear convergence mechanisms or increased importance of education; both of which have played prominent roles in recent discussion of economic performance. Our results therefore highlight that the period 1978-98 was particularly advantageous to countries which strongly favored capital accumulation, and hence suggests that research aimed at understanding recent differences in economic performances across countries needs to focus on explaining why the social returns to physical capital accumulation where abnormally high over the period 1978-98.

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This paper examines the determinants of changes in the US wage structure over the period 1976-2000, with the objective of evaluating whether these changes are best described as the result of ongoing skill-biased technological change, or alternatively, as the outcome of an adjustment process associated with a major change in technological opportunities. The main empirical observation we uncover is that change in both the level of wages and the returns to skill over this period appear to be primarily driven by changes in the ratio of human capital (as measured by effective units of skilled workers) to physical capital. Although at first pass this pattern may appear difficult to interpret, we show that it conforms extremely well to a simple model of technological adoption following a major change in technological opportunities. In contrast, we do not find much empirical support for the view that ongoing (factor-augmenting) skill-biased technological progress has been an important driving force over this period, nor do we find support for the view that physical capital accumulation has contributed to the increased differential between more and less educated workers; in fact, we find the opposite.

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We derive Local Average Treatment Effect estimates of the impact of welfare benefit denial on future receipt using a unique experiment involving reassessment of some applicants who were originally slated to receive benefits. We find evidence of considerable heterogeneity among applicants. Our results support a model with a peripheral group who exhibit scarring effects from being granted benefits and a core group who do not. The core group moves quickly back onto welfare when they are denied benefits. Even for the peripheral group, benefit denial has intermediate term but not permanent impacts.

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This paper uses direct measures of literacy to examine the influence of cognitive and unobserved skills on earnings. We find that cognitive skills contribute significantly to earnings and that their inclusion in earnings equations reduces the measured impact of schooling. The impact of literacy on earnings does not vary across quantiles of the earnings distribution; schooling and literacy do not interact in influencing earnings; and introducing literacy has little effect on the estimated impact of experience. Our findings suggest that cognitive and unobserved skills are both productive but that having more of one skill does not enhance the other’s productivity.

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Over the last twenty years the wage-education relationships in the US and Germany have evolved very differently, while the education composition of employment has evolved in a surprisingly parallel fashion. In this paper, we propose and test an explanation to these conflicting patterns. The model we present has two important elements: (1) technological change arises in the form of an alternative production process as opposed to being in the factor augmenting form, which renders technological adoption endogenous, (2) aggregate production depends on three factors (physical capital, human capital and labor). Based on this framework, we show why imbalances in the accumulation of human versus physical capital will be especially detrimental to low skill workers when the new technology is skill-biased and exhibits capital-skill complementarity. Using matched files from the PSID (US) and the GSOEP (Germany), we demonstrate how factor movements within these countries are associated with wage changes that are strongly supportive of our endogenous technological adoption model. Our conclusion is that the difference in the US and German experiences appear driven by the US having under-accumulated physical capital relative human capital over the 1979-96 period, while Germany accumulated factors in a more balanced manner.

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We examine the economic goals of current immigration policy and what role immigration should play in overall economic policy. We proceed by describing the economic goals of immigration policy throughout this century. We then describe current economically targeted elements of immigration policy and relate them to historical trends. Finally, we examine a set of potential economic goals for immigration suggested by Canada’s policy history. We conclude that economic goals should not form the defining orientation of immigration policy in the near future since other policies are better situated to meet those goals. Immigra- tion should continue as a defining element in our social fabric.

link to paper not available.

Recent surveys on the labor-supply responses of men document a divergence in the estimates of substitution and income effects obtained using various estimation approaches. Generally, stud- ies accounting for nonlinear tax schedules in a static setting via a piecewise-linear approach produce estimates that typically im- ply higher substitution and lower income responses than are suggested by empirical work applying other approaches. This paper demonstrates that maximum likelihood estimation of a consumer-choice problem with nonlinear budget sets implicitly relies on the satisfaction of inequality constraints that translate into behaviorally meaningful restrictions. These constraints arise not as a consequence of economic theory, but instead as a re- quirement to create a properly defined statistical model. In the analysis of piecewise-linear budget sets, the implicit constraints required by maximum likelihood in estimation amount to imposi- tion of Slutsky conditions at all wage-income combinations asso- ciated with kink points. In the analysis of differentiable budget sets, the tacit constraints invoked by maximum likelihood also involve inequality restrictions on Slutsky terms. The empirical work presented in this study supports the contention that these implicit constraints play a major role in explaining the dis- crepancies in estimates found in the literature on men’s labor supply.

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CHAPTERS

Economic Statistics and Social Welfare Comparisons: A Review.
(with J.B. Davies and H.J. Paarsch)
Handbook of Applied Economic Statistics, A. Ullah and D.E.A. Giles, eds.. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.. pp. 1-39.

Bridging the Gap: Labour Economists and Economic History.
in The Evolution of Labour Markets, eds., G. Grantham and M. Mackinnon. Routledge Press, 1994 pp27-38.

Intended and Actual Occupations of Immigrants.
Diminishing Returns: The Economics of Canada’s Immigration Policy D.J.DeVoretz, ed.. C.D. Howe Institute, 1995, pp.331-78.

Job Durations in Canada: Is Long Term Employment Declining?
(with W.C. Riddell)
in Transitional and Structural Change in the North American Labour Market, eds., M. Abbott, C. Beach and R. Chaykowski. Industrial Relations Centre Press, 1997, pp.8-40.

Employment Outcomes in Canada: A Cohort Analysis.
(with Paul Beaudry)
in Adapting Public Policy to a Labour Market in Transition, F. St-Hilaire and W.C. Riddell, eds.. Montreal: IRPP Press, 2000, pp.39-84.

Literacy Skills, Non-Cognitive Skills and Earnings: An Economist’s Perspective.
(with W. Craig Riddell)
in Towards Evidence-Based Policy for Canadian Education, edited by Patrice de Broucker and Arthur Sweetman. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press and John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy, pp.123-53

Canada-U.S. Integration and Labour Market Outcomes: A Perspective Within the General Context of Globalization.
(with Paul Beaudry)
in North American Linkages: Opportunities and Challenges for Canada, R. Harris, ed.. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2003.

Races to the Bottom Versus Races to the Middle: Minimum Wage Setting in Canada.
(with Kathryn Harrison)
in Racing to the Bottom? Provincial Interdependence in the Canadian Federation, Kathryn Harrison, ed.. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2006, pp. 193-228.

Rising Income Inequality in the 1990s: An Exploration of Three Data Sources.
(with Marc Frenette and Garnett Picot)
in Dimensions of Inequality in Canada, David A. Green and Jon Kesselman, eds.. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2006, pp. 65-100.

Dimensions of Inequality in a Just Society.
(with Jonathan R. Kesselman)
in Dimensions of Inequality in Canada, David A. Green and Jon Kesselman, eds.. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2006, pp. 1-32.

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BOOKS

Dimensions of Inequality in Canada
(co-edited with Jonathan R. Kessleman)
Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2006. (Winner of the Doug Purvis Memorial Prize for work on Canadian economic policy.)

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Winter 2013
No ECON course(s) were found for W2013 term.Winter 2013
No ECON course(s) were found for W2013 term.